Discover the latest trends and insights

Stay Up-to-Date with Our Latest Design and Technology

Data Science

Data Science
21 Must-Know Python Libraries For Data Science in 2024
5 min read

In the dynamic realm of data science, having the right tools at your disposal can make all the difference. Python, with its simplicity, versatility, and rich library ecosystem, has emerged as the go-to language for data scientists worldwide. In this blog post, we'll delve into the 21 must-know Python libraries for data science in 2024, each of which plays a crucial role in different facets of data analysis, visualization, and machine learning.

Benefits of Using Python For Data Science

Python's ascent to prominence in the field of data science is no coincidence. Its intuitive syntax, extensive community support, and powerful libraries have made it the preferred choice for data professionals. Let's explore some key advantages of using Python for your data science endeavors:

1. Simplicity and Readability

Python's clean and readable syntax allows data scientists to focus on solving problems rather than wrestling with code complexity. This simplicity not only accelerates development but also promotes collaboration within teams.

2. Vast Ecosystem of Libraries

One of Python's greatest strengths lies in its extensive library ecosystem. With specialized libraries for tasks ranging from numerical computing to natural language processing, Python provides a comprehensive toolkit for data scientists.

3. Large and Active Community

The Python community is a thriving hub of knowledge and expertise. Whether you're seeking advice on a specific library or encountering a coding challenge, chances are someone in the community has faced a similar situation and can offer guidance.

How To Choose The Right Python Libraries For Your Needs

Selecting the right Python libraries is a pivotal decision for any data science project. Each library brings its own set of capabilities and specialties to the table. To ensure you're making informed choices, consider the following factors:

1. Functionality and Use Case

Determine the specific tasks and analyses you need to perform. Some libraries excel in numerical computing, while others are tailored for natural language processing or machine learning.

2. Ease of Use and Documentation

Evaluate the user-friendliness of a library. Clear documentation and well-maintained resources can significantly reduce the learning curve.

3. Compatibility with Existing Tools

Ensure that the chosen libraries integrate smoothly with your existing tech stack. Compatibility with other tools and frameworks can streamline your workflow.

4. Community and Support

Consider the size and activity level of the library's community. A vibrant community can provide valuable insights, troubleshooting help, and contribute to the library's continued development.

5. Performance and Scalability

Depending on your project's requirements, assess the performance benchmarks of the libraries. Some libraries may be optimized for speed, while others focus on scalability.

6. License and Usage Policies

Verify that the library's license aligns with your project's requirements. Some libraries may have specific usage restrictions or licensing terms to be aware of.

By carefully weighing these factors, you can make informed decisions when selecting the right Python libraries for your specific data science needs.

Detailed Overview of Essential Python Libraries

1. NumPy

NumPy Python Library

Role in Numerical Computing and Handling Arrays and Matrices

NumPy, short for Numerical Python, is a fundamental library for numerical computations in Python. It provides support for handling large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays.

NumPy's primary contribution lies in its ability to perform array operations with a speed and efficiency that exceeds native Python lists. This makes it an essential tool for numerical tasks in data science, machine learning, and scientific computing.

Examples of Scenarios

Matrix Operations: NumPy simplifies complex matrix computations. For example, in linear algebra, you can use NumPy to perform operations like matrix multiplication, inverse calculations, and eigenvalue computations.

Statistical Calculations: NumPy is used extensively for statistical analysis. It allows for efficient computation of various statistical measures such as mean, median, standard deviation, variance, and more.

Signal Processing: In fields like digital signal processing, NumPy is crucial for tasks like filtering, Fourier transforms, and other frequency-domain operations.

Random Number Generation: NumPy includes functions for generating random numbers, which is essential in simulations and various statistical applications.

Data Manipulation and Cleaning: It's used for reshaping and cleaning datasets, especially when dealing with missing or incorrect data points.

Machine Learning: NumPy is the backbone of many machine learning libraries. It's used for implementing algorithms like support vector machines, principal component analysis, and more.

NumPy's efficiency in handling numerical operations and its wide array of mathematical functions make it an indispensable tool for any data scientist.

2. pandas

pandas Python Library

Facilitating Data Manipulation and Analysis

Pandas is a powerful library built on top of NumPy, designed specifically for data manipulation and analysis. It introduces two fundamental data structures: Series (1-dimensional) and DataFrame (2-dimensional), which provide a flexible and intuitive way to handle structured data.

Examples of Use Cases

Data Cleaning and Preparation: Pandas excels at handling missing data, data alignment, and data transformation. It allows for tasks like filling in missing values, dropping unnecessary columns, and transforming data into a format suitable for analysis.

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA): With pandas, you can perform essential EDA tasks like summarizing data, calculating descriptive statistics, and visualizing distributions. This is crucial for understanding the underlying patterns and characteristics of a dataset.

Data Aggregation and Grouping: Pandas facilitates the process of grouping data based on specific criteria and performing aggregate operations. For instance, you can easily calculate sums, means, counts, etc., based on different groups within the dataset.

Merging and Joining Datasets: It provides powerful tools for combining datasets based on a shared key. This is essential for tasks like merging data from multiple sources or performing database-like operations.

Time Series Analysis: Pandas offers specialized functionalities for handling time series data, making it an ideal choice for financial and economic analysis, as well as other time-dependent datasets.

Handling Categorical Data: It provides robust support for categorical data, including the ability to perform operations like encoding and decoding categorical variables.

Data Input and Output: Pandas can read data from various file formats (CSV, Excel, SQL databases, etc.) and write data back to these formats after manipulation and analysis.

Integration with Visualization Libraries: It integrates seamlessly with visualization libraries like Matplotlib and Seaborn, enabling easy generation of informative plots and visualizations.

Overall, pandas' ease of use, extensive functionality, and compatibility with other libraries make it an indispensable tool for data wrangling and analysis in Python.

3. Matplotlib

matplotlib library in python

Role in Basic Data Visualization

Matplotlib is a comprehensive library for creating static, animated, and interactive visualizations in Python. It is particularly powerful for producing 2D and limited 3D plots, making it a cornerstone for data visualization in data science.

Capabilities and Use Cases

Line Plots: Matplotlib is adept at creating line plots, making it suitable for visualizing trends and time series data. This is crucial for tasks like tracking stock prices, temperature changes, or any other continuous data.

Scatter Plots: It allows for the creation of scatter plots, which are essential for understanding relationships between two variables. Scatter plots are useful for identifying correlations or clusters within a dataset.

Bar Charts and Histograms: Matplotlib is capable of generating bar charts and histograms, providing tools for visualizing distributions and comparing categorical data.

Pie Charts: It enables the creation of pie charts for displaying proportions or percentages within a dataset.

Error Bars and Confidence Intervals: Matplotlib supports the inclusion of error bars and confidence intervals in plots, aiding in the interpretation of uncertainty in data.

Subplots and Grids: It allows for the creation of multiple plots within a single figure, facilitating the comparison of different aspects of the data.

Annotations and Text: Matplotlib provides options for adding annotations, labels, and text to plots, enhancing their interpretability.

Customization and Styling: It offers a wide range of customization options, allowing users to modify colors, styles, and other visual aspects of plots to match specific preferences or requirements.

Exporting and Saving Plots: Matplotlib enables the export of plots in various formats such as PNG, PDF, SVG, etc., making it easy to incorporate visualizations into reports or presentations.

Matplotlib's versatility and extensive documentation make it a powerful tool for creating a wide variety of static visualizations, from simple line plots to complex, multi-panel figures.

4. Seaborn

Seaborn python

Enhancing Statistical Data Visualization

Seaborn is a high-level data visualization library that builds on top of Matplotlib. It specializes in creating aesthetically pleasing and informative statistical graphics. Seaborn provides a high-level interface for producing visually appealing visualizations with minimal code.

Key Features and Applications

Statistical Plots: Seaborn offers a wide range of statistical plots such as scatter plots, bar plots, violin plots, and box plots. These plots incorporate statistical summaries directly into the visualization, providing insights into the underlying data distribution.

Categorical Data Visualization: Seaborn excels at visualizing categorical data through plots like categorical scatter plots, bar plots, and count plots. It's particularly useful for understanding the distribution of categorical variables and their relationships.

Multi-plot Grids: It provides the ability to create multi-plot grids, allowing for the simultaneous visualization of multiple aspects of the data. This is valuable for exploring complex relationships within a dataset.

Color Palettes and Themes: Seaborn includes a range of aesthetically pleasing color palettes and themes, making it easy to customize the appearance of visualizations.

Time Series Data Visualization: Seaborn can be used effectively for visualizing time series data, enabling data scientists to uncover trends and patterns over time.

Regression Plots: It provides specialized functions for visualizing relationships between variables, including regression plots with confidence intervals, which are valuable for understanding linear relationships.

Matrix Plots: Seaborn offers functions to create visually appealing matrix plots, which are useful for visualizing relationships between multiple variables in a dataset.

Facet Grids: It allows for the creation of multi-plot grids based on categorical variables, enabling a deeper exploration of relationships within subsets of the data.

Pair Plots: Seaborn can generate pair plots for visualizing pairwise relationships in a dataset. This is particularly valuable for understanding correlations and distributions across multiple variables.

Seaborn's focus on statistical visualization, combined with its user-friendly interface, makes it an invaluable tool for data scientists looking to create informative and visually appealing graphics.

5. Scikit-learn

Scikit-learn python

Comprehensive Machine Learning Library

Scikit-learn, often abbreviated as sklearn, is a versatile and comprehensive machine learning library in Python. It provides a wide range of machine learning algorithms, as well as tools for data preprocessing, model evaluation, and model selection.

Key Aspects and Applications

Classification and Regression: Scikit-learn offers a rich collection of algorithms for both classification and regression tasks. This includes popular techniques like Support Vector Machines, Random Forests, and Gradient Boosting.

Clustering: It provides a variety of clustering algorithms for unsupervised learning tasks. These algorithms are essential for tasks like customer segmentation, anomaly detection, and more.

Dimensionality Reduction: Scikit-learn includes methods for reducing the dimensionality of datasets, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE). This is crucial for visualizing high-dimensional data and speeding up computations.

Model Evaluation and Metrics: The library offers a range of metrics for evaluating model performance, including accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, and many more. It also provides tools for cross-validation, enabling robust model evaluation.

Hyperparameter Tuning: Scikit-learn facilitates the process of hyperparameter tuning, which involves finding the best set of hyperparameters for a machine learning model. This is crucial for optimizing model performance.

Ensemble Methods: It supports ensemble methods like bagging, boosting, and stacking, allowing for the combination of multiple models to improve predictive performance.

Feature Selection and Engineering: Scikit-learn provides tools for feature selection and engineering, allowing data scientists to identify and use the most relevant features for modeling.

Preprocessing and Pipelines: The library includes various preprocessing techniques such as standardization, normalization, and one-hot encoding. These techniques are crucial for preparing data for modeling.

Outlier Detection: Scikit-learn offers algorithms for detecting outliers in datasets, which is important for ensuring the quality and reliability of the data used for modeling.

Imbalanced Data Handling: It provides techniques for handling imbalanced datasets, which is common in many real-world applications.

Scikit-learn's well-documented API, extensive set of algorithms, and consistent interface make it an indispensable library for both beginners and experienced practitioners in machine learning.

6. SciPy

scipy python

Role in Advanced Scientific and Technical Computing

SciPy is a library built on top of NumPy, providing additional functionality for scientific and technical computing tasks. It is particularly valuable for tasks that go beyond basic numerical operations and require more specialized functions and algorithms.

Specific Functionalities

Optimization: SciPy offers a wide range of optimization algorithms for tasks like minimizing or maximizing objective functions. This is crucial for tasks like parameter tuning in machine learning models.

Integration: It provides functions for numerical integration, including methods like Simpson's rule and Gaussian quadrature. This is essential for solving problems in calculus and differential equations.

Interpolation: SciPy includes tools for performing data interpolation, allowing for the estimation of intermediate values within a dataset. This is valuable for tasks like curve fitting.

Linear Algebra: While NumPy covers basic linear algebra operations, SciPy extends this with additional functionalities like solving linear systems, computing eigenvalues, and performing sparse matrix operations.

Signal and Image Processing: SciPy includes a variety of functions for tasks like filtering, convolution, and image manipulation. This is crucial for applications in signal processing and computer vision.

Statistics and Probability: It provides a wide range of statistical functions, probability distributions, and hypothesis testing tools. This makes SciPy valuable for statistical analysis and hypothesis testing.

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs): SciPy offers solvers for initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. This is essential for simulating dynamic systems.

Sparse Matrices: SciPy provides specialized data structures and algorithms for handling sparse matrices, which are common in scientific and engineering applications.

Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations (PDEs): It includes tools for solving PDEs, which are prevalent in fields like physics and engineering.

Statistical Functions: SciPy extends the statistical capabilities of NumPy with additional functions for probability distributions, hypothesis testing, and more.

SciPy's rich collection of functions and algorithms for advanced scientific computing tasks makes it a vital library for researchers, engineers, and data scientists working on complex numerical problems.

7. Statsmodels

Statsmodels python

Estimating and Interpreting Statistical Models

Statsmodels is a Python library that focuses on estimating and interpreting models for statistical analysis. It provides a wide range of tools for conducting hypothesis tests, exploring relationships in data, and performing various types of statistical modeling.

Key Aspects and Applications

Regression Analysis: Statsmodels excels in performing regression analysis, including linear regression, logistic regression, and more. It provides detailed summaries of regression results, including coefficients, p-values, and confidence intervals.

Time Series Analysis: The library offers a variety of tools for analyzing time series data, including autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, seasonal decomposition of time series (STL), and more.

Hypothesis Testing: Statsmodels provides a comprehensive suite of hypothesis tests for different types of statistical comparisons. This is crucial for validating assumptions and drawing meaningful conclusions from data.

Econometric Modeling: It is widely used in economics for estimating and interpreting models related to economic relationships, such as demand and supply, production functions, and more.

Nonparametric Methods: Statsmodels includes methods for nonparametric statistics, which are useful when assumptions about the underlying data distribution cannot be met.

Time Series Forecasting: The library provides tools for building and validating forecasting models, allowing for the prediction of future data points based on historical trends.

Generalized Linear Models (GLM): It supports GLM estimation, which is a flexible framework for modeling various types of relationships in data, including binary outcomes, count data, and more.

ANOVA and Experimental Design: Statsmodels offers tools for conducting analysis of variance (ANOVA) and experimental design, which are crucial for comparing groups and understanding treatment effects.

Multivariate Analysis: It provides capabilities for conducting multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis, and more.

Statistical Tests for Time Series: Statsmodels includes various tests for diagnosing properties of time series data, such as stationarity tests and tests for autocorrelation.

Statsmodels' emphasis on statistical modeling and hypothesis testing makes it an indispensable tool for researchers and data scientists conducting rigorous statistical analysis.

8. Jupyter Notebooks

Jupyter Notebooks Python

Interactive Computing and Document Sharing

Jupyter Notebooks is an interactive computing environment that allows users to create and share documents that combine live code, visualizations, explanatory text, and more. It's a powerful tool for data scientists to perform data analysis, conduct experiments, and document their work in an interactive and reproducible manner.

Key Features and Applications

Live Code Execution: Jupyter Notebooks enable users to write and execute code in individual cells. This promotes an interactive and iterative approach to data analysis, as users can run code segments and immediately see the results.

Rich Output: In addition to code, Jupyter Notebooks support the display of rich outputs including text, images, plots, and even interactive widgets. This allows for comprehensive and informative documentation of the analysis process.

Markdown Support: Users can incorporate Markdown cells for adding formatted text, headings, lists, links, and more. This makes it easy to provide context, explanations, and documentation alongside code.

Data Visualization Integration: Jupyter Notebooks seamlessly integrate with data visualization libraries like Matplotlib, Seaborn, and Plotly, allowing for the creation of dynamic and interactive plots directly within the notebook.

Easy Experimentation: Data scientists can perform experiments and analyses in a controlled environment. They can modify code, rerun cells, and observe the impact on results, making it easy to fine-tune models and algorithms.

Collaborative Work: Jupyter Notebooks can be shared with colleagues or the wider community. This facilitates collaboration, knowledge sharing, and reproducibility of analyses.

Kernel Support: Jupyter supports multiple programming languages through the use of different kernels. While Python is the most commonly used language, kernels are available for languages like R, Julia, and more.

Version Control Integration: Notebooks can be tracked in version control systems like Git, allowing for easy management of changes and collaboration among team members.

Exporting and Converting: Jupyter Notebooks can be saved in various formats including HTML, PDF, and LaTeX. This enables users to share their work in different contexts or publish it as a report.

Interactive Widgets: Jupyter supports the creation of interactive widgets, allowing users to control parameters and visualize results in real time. This is particularly useful for exploring data interactively.

Jupyter Notebooks' combination of code execution, visualizations, and explanatory text makes it an indispensable tool for data scientists seeking an interactive and collaborative environment for their work.

9. TensorFlow or PyTorch

TensorFlow or PyTorch

Frameworks for Deep Learning and Neural Networks

Both TensorFlow and PyTorch are powerful open-source libraries for building and training deep learning models. They provide a comprehensive set of tools and resources for constructing and training neural networks, making them essential for tasks like image recognition, natural language processing, and more.

Key Aspects and Applications


Graph-Based Computation: TensorFlow follows a computation graph paradigm, where computations are represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). This allows for efficient execution on GPUs and TPUs, making it suitable for large-scale deep learning tasks.

High-Level APIs: TensorFlow offers high-level APIs like Keras, which simplifies the process of building and training neural networks. Keras provides a user-friendly interface for designing models without the need to define computational graphs explicitly.

Wide Range of Pretrained Models: TensorFlow includes a vast collection of pre-trained models through the TensorFlow Hub, which allows data scientists to leverage state-of-the-art architectures for various tasks.

TensorBoard for Visualization: It integrates with TensorBoard, a powerful visualization tool, for tracking and visualizing metrics, model graphs, and more. This aids in monitoring and improving model performance.

Production Deployment: TensorFlow provides tools for deploying models in production environments, including TensorFlow Serving for serving models via APIs.

Support for Mobile and Embedded Devices: TensorFlow offers tools like TensorFlow Lite for deploying models on mobile and embedded devices, enabling applications with real-time processing requirements.


Dynamic Computation Graphs: PyTorch adopts a dynamic computation graph approach, allowing for more flexible and intuitive model construction. This is advantageous for tasks that involve dynamic or variable-length inputs.

Easier Debugging and Experimentation: PyTorch's imperative programming style makes it easier to debug and experiment with different architectures and techniques. It follows a "Pythonic" way of writing code.

Research-Focused Community: PyTorch has gained popularity in the research community due to its flexibility and ease of use. This has led to a rich ecosystem of research papers, models, and pre-trained weights available in PyTorch.

Natural Integration with Python: Since PyTorch is closely integrated with Python, it aligns well with Python programming paradigms and is easy to learn for Python developers.

TorchScript for Production: PyTorch includes TorchScript, a domain-specific language, which can be used to serialize and optimize models for production deployment.

Libraries like Fastai: Fastai, a high-level deep learning library built on top of PyTorch, provides simplified APIs for common deep learning tasks and includes pre-built models and training techniques.

Choosing between TensorFlow and PyTorch often comes down to personal preference, specific project requirements, and the existing ecosystem of the team or community.

10. Keras

Keras Python

High-Level Neural Networks API

Keras is a high-level neural networks API that can run on top of either TensorFlow or Theano. It provides a user-friendly interface for designing, training, and deploying deep learning models, making it accessible to both beginners and experienced practitioners.

Key Aspects and Applications

Simplicity and Ease of Use: Keras is known for its straightforward and intuitive API, which allows users to quickly build and experiment with neural network architectures. It abstracts many of the complexities of lower-level libraries.

Modularity and Flexibility: Keras enables the construction of models through a series of high-level building blocks called "layers." This modular approach makes it easy to assemble and customize complex neural network architectures.

Support for Multiple Backends: Keras can be configured to run on top of different backends, including TensorFlow and Theano. This provides flexibility in choosing the underlying computational engine.

Wide Range of Pretrained Models: Keras includes access to a large collection of pre-trained models through the Keras Applications module. These models are trained on massive datasets and can be fine-tuned for specific tasks.

Multi-GPU and Distributed Training: Keras supports training on multiple GPUs and distributed computing, allowing for accelerated training of large-scale models.

Integration with Other Libraries: Keras seamlessly integrates with libraries like TensorFlow and SciPy, enabling users to leverage additional functionalities for tasks like data preprocessing and optimization.

Visualizations and Callbacks: It provides tools for visualizing model architectures, monitoring training progress, and applying callbacks during training (e.g., early stopping, model checkpointing).

Transfer Learning and Fine-Tuning: Keras facilitates transfer learning, where pre-trained models can be adapted for specific tasks with relatively small datasets. This is particularly useful when working with limited annotated data.

Community and Documentation: Keras has a vibrant community with extensive documentation, tutorials, and resources. This makes it easy for users to get started and find solutions to common problems.

Model Export and Deployment: Keras models can be exported in a variety of formats, including TensorFlow SavedModel and ONNX, making it compatible with various deployment environments.

Keras' combination of simplicity, flexibility, and powerful abstractions makes it an excellent choice for rapid prototyping and experimentation in deep learning projects.

11. NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit)

NLTK Python

Working with Human Language Data

NLTK, short for Natural Language Toolkit, is a comprehensive library for working with human language data (text). It provides a suite of libraries and programs for tasks like tokenization, stemming, tagging, parsing, and semantic reasoning, making it a powerful tool for natural language processing (NLP) tasks.

Key Functionalities and Applications

Tokenization: NLTK offers tools for breaking text into individual words or tokens. This is a fundamental step in many NLP tasks, including text analysis, sentiment analysis, and machine translation.

Stemming and Lemmatization: It provides algorithms for reducing words to their base or root form (stemming) or converting them to their canonical form (lemmatization). This is essential for tasks like text classification and information retrieval.

Part-of-Speech Tagging: NLTK includes pre-trained models for assigning grammatical tags (noun, verb, adjective, etc.) to words in a sentence. This information is valuable for tasks like syntax analysis and semantic understanding.

Named Entity Recognition (NER): It includes tools for identifying and classifying named entities (names of people, organizations, locations, etc.) in text. This is crucial for tasks like information extraction.

Parsing and Syntax Analysis: NLTK provides tools for parsing sentences and determining their grammatical structure. This can be used for tasks like dependency parsing and sentence segmentation.

Sentiment Analysis: It includes resources and pre-trained models for sentiment analysis, allowing for the classification of text as positive, negative, or neutral.

Machine Translation: NLTK includes tools for building and evaluating machine translation models, enabling the translation of text from one language to another.

WordNet Integration: NLTK integrates with WordNet, a lexical database of the English language. This provides a rich source of semantic information for tasks like word sense disambiguation.

Corpus and Language Resources: NLTK includes a vast collection of text corpora, lexical resources, and language processing tools. These resources are invaluable for training models and conducting research in NLP.

Text Classification and Categorization: It provides tools for building and evaluating text classification models, allowing for tasks like sentiment analysis, topic modeling, and document categorization.

NLTK's extensive set of tools and resources for NLP tasks makes it a go-to library for researchers, linguists, and data scientists working with text data.

12. spaCy

spaCy python

Advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP)

spaCy is a popular library for advanced natural language processing (NLP) tasks. It is designed for efficiency and high performance, making it suitable for processing large volumes of text data. spaCy provides a wide range of functionalities for tasks like entity recognition, dependency parsing, and more.

Key Functionalities and Applications

Tokenization and Part-of-Speech Tagging: spaCy excels in tokenizing text into words or phrases and assigning grammatical tags to each token. This is essential for various NLP tasks, including syntactic and semantic analysis.

Named Entity Recognition (NER): It includes pre-trained models for recognizing and classifying named entities in text, such as names of people, organizations, locations, etc. This is crucial for information extraction and entity linking tasks.

Dependency Parsing: spaCy provides tools for analyzing the grammatical structure of sentences, including identifying the relationships between words. This is valuable for tasks like syntax analysis and semantic understanding.

Lemmatization: It offers a lemmatizer that converts words to their base or root form. This is important for tasks like text classification and information retrieval.

Entity Linking: spaCy includes functionality for linking recognized entities to knowledge bases or databases, providing additional context and information about those entities.

Sentence Segmentation: It can segment text into individual sentences, which is an important step for various NLP tasks, including machine translation and sentiment analysis.

Word Vector Representations: spaCy provides pre-trained word vectors (word embeddings) that capture semantic similarities between words. These embeddings can be used for tasks like word similarity, clustering, and classification.

Text Classification: It includes tools for building and training text classification models, allowing for tasks like sentiment analysis, topic modeling, and document categorization.

Customizable Pipelines: spaCy allows users to customize the NLP pipeline to include specific components or functionalities based on their requirements.

Multi-Language Support: It supports multiple languages and provides pre-trained models for various languages, making it a versatile choice for global NLP projects.

spaCy's emphasis on speed, efficiency, and accuracy makes it a valuable library for researchers, data scientists, and developers working on complex NLP tasks.

13. Gensim

Gensim python

Topic Modeling and Document Similarity Analysis

Gensim is a powerful Python library for topic modeling and document similarity analysis. It is designed to work with textual data and is particularly valuable for tasks like extracting topics from a collection of documents or finding similar documents based on their content.

Key Functionalities and Applications

Topic Modeling: Gensim provides tools for performing topic modeling, which involves identifying topics in a collection of documents. This is valuable for tasks like content categorization and clustering.

Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): It includes algorithms for performing LSA, a technique that uncovers the underlying structure in a set of documents. LSA is used for tasks like information retrieval and document summarization.

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA): Gensim supports LDA, a probabilistic model that assigns topics to words and documents. LDA is widely used for uncovering themes or topics in large document collections.

Document Similarity Analysis: Gensim can calculate similarities between documents based on their content. This is useful for tasks like finding similar articles, clustering related documents, and recommending similar content.

Word Embeddings: Gensim includes tools for training word embeddings (word vectors) using techniques like Word2Vec. Word embeddings are essential for tasks like word similarity, document classification, and more.

Document-to-Vector (Doc2Vec): It supports Doc2Vec, an extension of Word2Vec that learns embeddings for entire documents. This allows for the representation of documents in a continuous vector space.

Text Summarization: Gensim can be used for extractive text summarization, where key sentences are selected from a document to create a concise summary.

Scalability and Efficiency: Gensim is designed to be memory-efficient and can handle large datasets and corpora. This makes it suitable for processing extensive collections of text documents.

Multi-Language Support: It supports multiple languages and can be used for topic modeling and similarity analysis in various linguistic contexts.

Integration with Other Libraries: Gensim can be seamlessly integrated with other NLP libraries like spaCy and NLTK, allowing for a more comprehensive analysis of text data.

Gensim's capabilities in topic modeling and document similarity analysis make it a valuable tool for researchers, content creators, and data scientists working with textual data.

14. NetworkX

NetworkX python

Creating, Manipulating, and Analyzing Complex Networks

NetworkX is a Python library designed for the creation, manipulation, and study of complex networks. It provides tools for modeling and analyzing the structure and dynamics of networks, making it invaluable for tasks like social network analysis, transportation networks, and more.

Key Functionalities and Applications

Graph Representation: NetworkX allows for the creation and manipulation of graphs, which consist of nodes (vertices) and edges (connections between nodes). This is essential for modeling various types of networks.

Directed and Undirected Graphs: It supports both directed graphs (where edges have a specific direction) and undirected graphs (where edges have no direction).

Graph Algorithms: NetworkX includes a wide range of algorithms for tasks like finding shortest paths, computing centrality measures, detecting communities, and more. These algorithms are crucial for analyzing network properties.

Centrality Measures: It provides tools for computing centrality measures, such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and eigenvector centrality. These measures help identify important nodes in a network.

Community Detection: NetworkX includes algorithms for detecting communities or clusters within a network. This is valuable for understanding the structure and organization of complex networks.

Graph Visualization: It offers basic tools for visualizing graphs, allowing users to create visual representations of network structures.

Network Properties and Metrics: NetworkX provides functions for computing various metrics and properties of networks, including diameter, clustering coefficient, and assortativity.

Graph Generators: It includes a collection of generators for creating standard graph types (e.g., complete graphs, random graphs) as well as more complex network models (e.g., small-world networks, scale-free networks).

Graph I/O: NetworkX supports reading and writing graphs in various file formats, allowing for easy integration with external data sources.

Multi-Graphs and Multi-Digraphs: It can handle graphs with multiple edges between nodes and directed graphs with multiple edges.

NetworkX's capabilities in network modeling and analysis make it a valuable tool for researchers, data scientists, and engineers working on a wide range of network-related problems.

15. Beautiful Soup

Web Scraping for Data Extraction

Beautiful Soup is a Python library used for web scraping purposes. It provides tools for parsing HTML and XML documents, navigating their structures, and extracting relevant information. This makes it a valuable tool for data scientists and researchers who need to gather data from websites.

Key Functionalities and Applications

HTML and XML Parsing: Beautiful Soup can parse HTML and XML documents, allowing users to navigate the document's structure and extract specific elements.

Tag and Attribute Selection: It provides methods for selecting specific HTML tags and their attributes, making it easy to target and extract the desired content.

Navigating the Document Tree: Beautiful Soup allows for navigation through the document's tree structure, including moving up and down the hierarchy of elements.

Searching and Filtering: It supports powerful searching and filtering operations based on CSS selectors, tag names, attributes, and more. This enables precise targeting of elements for extraction.

Extracting Text and Attributes: Beautiful Soup allows users to extract the text content of elements as well as their attributes, which can be valuable for data collection.

Handling Different Encodings: It automatically converts incoming documents to Unicode, ensuring compatibility with various encodings.

Robust Error Handling: Beautiful Soup handles poorly formatted or incomplete HTML gracefully, making it robust for real-world web scraping tasks.

Integration with Requests: It is commonly used in conjunction with the Requests library, allowing for seamless HTTP requests and subsequent parsing of the retrieved content.

Web Page Crawling: Beautiful Soup can be used in combination with other libraries to crawl multiple pages within a website and extract data from each page.

Data Extraction for Analysis: Once data is extracted, it can be further processed and analyzed using other Python libraries for tasks like data cleaning, transformation, and visualization.

Beautiful Soup's ability to parse and extract data from web pages makes it an essential tool for data scientists who need to collect information from the internet for analysis and research.

16. Requests

requests python

Sending HTTP Requests

Requests is a Python library used for sending HTTP requests to web servers. It provides a simple and intuitive interface for making various types of requests (e.g., GET, POST) and handling responses. This makes it a fundamental tool for data scientists and developers working with web-based APIs and services.

Key Functionalities and Applications

Making HTTP Requests: Requests allows users to send HTTP requests to web servers, enabling interactions with web-based resources, APIs, and services.

Support for Different HTTP Methods: It supports various HTTP methods, including GET (retrieve data), POST (submit data), PUT (update data), DELETE (remove data), and more. This versatility is essential for interacting with different types of resources.

Passing Parameters and Data: Requests enables users to include parameters and data in their requests, allowing for customization of the request payload.

Handling Headers and Cookies: It provides options for setting custom headers and sending cookies along with the request, which is crucial for authentication and session management.

Handling Authentication: Requests supports basic authentication, as well as handling more complex authentication mechanisms like OAuth

Handling Response Content: It allows for easy access to the content of the HTTP response, whether it's HTML, JSON, XML, or other formats.

File Downloads: Requests can be used to download files from the web, making it useful for tasks like data acquisition and scraping.

Session Management: It supports sessions, allowing users to persist certain parameters or settings across multiple requests. This is useful for scenarios that require maintaining a session state.

Timeouts and Error Handling: Requests provides options for setting timeouts on requests to prevent them from hanging indefinitely. It also includes mechanisms for handling errors and status codes.

SSL Certificate Verification: It supports SSL certificate verification for secure and encrypted connections.

Requests' simplicity and flexibility make it a go-to library for data scientists and developers who need to interact with web-based resources, APIs, and services as part of their workflow.

17. Flask or Django

Flask or Django python

Web Application Development (Optional but Useful for Deploying Data Science Models)

Flask and Django are both popular Python web frameworks used for building web applications. While not strictly necessary for data science, they can be immensely useful for deploying data science models and creating interactive web-based tools for data analysis.

Key Aspects and Applications


Micro Framework: Flask is a micro web framework, which means it provides the essential components for building web applications without imposing too much structure. This allows for flexibility and customization.

Lightweight and Minimalistic: Flask is designed to be lightweight and follows a minimalistic approach, making it easy to get started and suitable for small to medium-sized projects.

Extensible with Extensions: It can be extended with various Flask extensions, allowing users to add functionalities like authentication, database integration, and more.

Jinja Templating: Flask integrates with the Jinja templating engine, which facilitates the rendering of dynamic content in HTML templates.

RESTful API Development: Flask is well-suited for building RESTful APIs, making it a good choice for creating API endpoints to serve data or model predictions.


Full-Featured Framework: Django is a high-level, full-featured web framework that provides a comprehensive set of tools and components for building robust web applications.

Built-in Admin Interface: Django includes a built-in admin interface that allows for easy management and administration of the application's data models.

ORM (Object-Relational Mapping): It comes with a powerful ORM system that simplifies database interactions by abstracting SQL queries into Python code.

Authentication and Authorization: Django provides built-in mechanisms for user authentication, authorization, and access control, making it well-suited for applications with user management.

Batteries Included: Django follows the "batteries included" philosophy, which means it comes with a wide range of built-in features and functionalities, reducing the need for external libraries.

Form Handling and Validation: Django includes a robust system for handling HTML forms, including form validation and processing.

Security Features: Django incorporates built-in security features like protection against common web vulnerabilities, making it a secure choice for web application development.

Scalability: While Django is feature-rich, it is designed to scale, allowing it to handle large and complex applications.

The choice between Flask and Django depends on the specific requirements of the project. Flask is well-suited for small to medium-sized projects and provides flexibility, while Django is ideal for larger, more complex applications with built-in features.

18. Bokeh or Plotly

Bokeh or Plotly python

Interactive and Dynamic Data Visualization

Bokeh and Plotly are both Python libraries used for creating interactive and dynamic data visualizations. They provide tools for generating a wide range of visualizations, including plots, charts, and dashboards, making them valuable for conveying insights from data.

Key Aspects and Applications


Interactive Web-Based Visualizations: Bokeh is designed for creating interactive and visually appealing plots that can be embedded in web applications.

High-Level and Low-Level Interfaces: It offers both high-level interfaces for creating common chart types (e.g., scatter plots, bar charts) and low-level interfaces for fine-grained control over visual elements.

Streaming Data: Bokeh includes features for handling streaming data, allowing for real-time updates in visualizations.

Server Integration: Bokeh can be used with the Bokeh server, which enables the creation of interactive, data-driven applications with server-side processing.

Integration with Jupyter Notebooks: It seamlessly integrates with Jupyter Notebooks, allowing for interactive data exploration and visualization within the notebook environment.


Wide Range of Chart Types: Plotly provides a comprehensive set of chart types, including line charts, bar charts, heatmaps, 3D plots, and more.

Interactive Dashboards: It excels in creating interactive dashboards with multiple linked visualizations, allowing for comprehensive data exploration.

Integration with Web Frameworks: Plotly can be integrated with web frameworks like Dash, which enables the creation of full-fledged web applications with interactive data visualizations.

Exportable and Shareable: Plotly visualizations can be easily exported as standalone HTML files or embedded in web pages, making them shareable across platforms.

3D and Geographic Visualizations: Plotly offers robust support for 3D visualizations and geographic maps, making it suitable for applications that require spatial or three-dimensional representation.

Customizable Themes and Styles: It provides options for customizing the appearance of visualizations, including themes, colors, and styles.

Both Bokeh and Plotly are powerful tools for creating interactive visualizations. The choice between them may come down to personal preference, specific project requirements, and the desired level of interactivity.

19. Scrapy

Scrapy pyhton

Web Crawling and Scraping

Scrapy is a powerful Python framework used for web crawling and scraping. It provides a structured way to extract data from websites, making it a valuable tool for data scientists and researchers who need to gather information from the web for analysis.

Key Functionalities and Applications

Crawling and Spidering: Scrapy allows users to define "spiders" that navigate websites and extract specific information from the pages. This enables automated data collection from multiple pages or websites.

XPath and CSS Selectors: It supports XPath and CSS selectors for targeting specific elements on web pages, making it easy to locate and extract desired content.

Item Pipelines: Scrapy includes item pipelines for processing the extracted data. This allows for tasks like data cleaning, validation, and transformation before saving the data.

Asynchronous Requests: Scrapy is designed to handle multiple requests simultaneously, making it efficient for scraping large volumes of data from multiple sources.

Robust Error Handling: It includes mechanisms for handling common web scraping challenges, such as handling timeouts, retries, and avoiding getting banned by websites.

HTTP Cache: Scrapy supports caching, which can help reduce the load on target websites and speed up the scraping process for recurrent visits.

Exporting Data: It provides built-in support for exporting scraped data in various formats, including JSON, CSV, and XML.

Middleware Support: Scrapy allows for the customization of request/response handling through middleware, enabling users to add custom functionality to the scraping process.

Distributed Crawling: It can be used in conjunction with tools like Scrapyd or Scrapy Cloud for distributed crawling across multiple machines or cloud environments.

Respectful Scraping: Scrapy encourages ethical scraping practices by allowing users to set crawl delays, respect robots.txt files, and avoid overloading servers.

Scrapy's structured approach to web scraping and its powerful features make it a preferred choice for projects that require systematic data extraction from websites.

20. LightGBM

LightGBM python

Gradient Boosting Framework for Machine Learning

LightGBM is an efficient and distributed gradient boosting framework designed for training large-scale machine learning models. It is particularly well-suited for tasks involving large datasets and complex models, making it a valuable tool for data scientists and machine learning practitioners.

Key Aspects and Applications

Gradient Boosting Algorithm: LightGBM is based on the gradient boosting algorithm, which sequentially builds an ensemble of weak learners (usually decision trees) to improve predictive performance.

Efficient and Fast: It is optimized for speed and efficiency, making it capable of handling large datasets with millions of samples and features. LightGBM is known for its high training speed and low memory usage.

Leaf-Wise Growth Strategy: LightGBM uses a leaf-wise growth strategy instead of a level-wise strategy. This leads to a reduction in the number of splits, resulting in faster training times.

Categorical Feature Support: It provides native support for categorical features without the need for one-hot encoding, reducing memory consumption and speeding up training.

Gradient-Based One-Side Sampling: LightGBM uses gradient-based one-side sampling, which focuses on the data points that contribute more to the gradients during the training process. This further improves efficiency.

Distributed and GPU Training: It supports distributed training across multiple machines and can leverage GPUs for even faster training times.

Regularization and Control Parameters: LightGBM offers a range of parameters for controlling the model's complexity, including L1 and L2 regularization. This helps prevent overfitting.

Hyperparameter Tuning: LightGBM provides tools for hyperparameter optimization, allowing users to find the best set of parameters for their specific task.

Interpretability and Feature Importance: It includes features for interpreting the model's predictions and assessing the importance of different features in the model.

Wide Range of Applications: LightGBM can be used for various machine learning tasks, including classification, regression, ranking, and more.

LightGBM's efficiency and effectiveness in handling large datasets and complex models make it a powerful choice for machine learning projects, especially those where speed and scalability are critical.

21. XGBoost

XGBoost python

Popular Gradient Boosting Library

XGBoost (eXtreme Gradient Boosting) is a widely used open-source library for gradient boosting. It is known for its high performance and accuracy in a wide range of machine learning tasks. XGBoost is a versatile tool that can be applied to both regression and classification problems.

Key Aspects and Applications

Gradient Boosting Algorithm: XGBoost employs the gradient boosting algorithm, which sequentially builds an ensemble of weak learners (typically decision trees) to improve predictive accuracy.

Regularization and Control Parameters: It includes a range of parameters for controlling the model's complexity, including L1 (Lasso) and L2 (Ridge) regularization. This helps prevent overfitting.

Handling Missing Values: XGBoost has built-in support for handling missing values in the dataset, reducing the need for data preprocessing.

Flexibility in Tree Construction: It offers flexibility in tree construction, allowing users to specify different criteria for making splits (e.g., gain, coverage).

Cross-Validation: XGBoost provides built-in support for cross-validation, allowing users to assess the model's performance and tune hyperparameters.

Ensemble Learning Techniques: It can perform both bagging and boosting, allowing for the combination of multiple models to improve predictive accuracy.

Parallel and Distributed Computing: XGBoost is designed for efficiency and can take advantage of multiple cores on a single machine. It also supports distributed computing for training on large datasets.

Support for Custom Loss Functions: It allows users to define and use custom loss functions, providing flexibility in model training.

Feature Importance Analysis: XGBoost provides tools for assessing the importance of different features in the model, helping to identify the most influential variables.

Wide Range of Applications: XGBoost can be applied to various machine learning tasks, including classification, regression, ranking, and more.

Integration with Python and Other Languages: XGBoost can be seamlessly integrated with Python, as well as other programming languages like R, Java, and Julia.

XGBoost's combination of accuracy, speed, and flexibility has made it a popular choice among data scientists and machine learning practitioners for a wide range of applications.

Future of Python For Data Science

As we step into 2024, Python's influence on the field of data science shows no signs of waning. Several trends and advancements are expected to shape the landscape of data science in the coming year:

1. Enhancements in Deep Learning Frameworks

TensorFlow, PyTorch, and related deep learning libraries are anticipated to undergo significant updates, further empowering researchers and practitioners in the realm of neural networks.

2. Rise of Explainable AI

Libraries like ELI5 (Explain Like I'm 5) are gaining traction, providing interpretable explanations for machine learning models. This trend is crucial for building trust and understanding in AI-driven solutions.

3. Advancements in Natural Language Processing (NLP)

With the increasing demand for language understanding applications, libraries like spaCy and NLTK are expected to introduce new features and models for NLP tasks.

4. Continued Growth of Data Visualization Libraries

Tools like Bokeh, Plotly, and Matplotlib are likely to evolve with enhanced features for interactive and dynamic data visualization, catering to the growing need for compelling data storytelling.

5. Expansion of AutoML Capabilities

Libraries and platforms facilitating Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) are projected to become more sophisticated, allowing for even easier implementation of machine learning models by non-experts.

6. Integration of Quantum Computing Libraries

With advancements in quantum computing, Python libraries like Qiskit and Forest are expected to play a significant role in quantum machine learning and optimization tasks.

These anticipated trends underscore Python's pivotal role in driving innovation and progress within the field of data science.


In the ever-evolving landscape of data science, having a solid grasp of the essential Python libraries is paramount. Python's simplicity, extensive library ecosystem, and supportive community make it the linchpin of data science in 2024.

From NumPy's numerical computing prowess to the advanced statistical analysis capabilities of Statsmodels, each library plays a unique role in empowering data scientists to tackle complex challenges. Whether you're delving into machine learning with Scikit-learn or unraveling the mysteries of natural language with NLTK, Python has a library tailored to your needs.

As we look ahead, the future of Python in data science promises even greater advancements. Deep learning frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch are set to reach new heights, while the demand for explainable AI solutions continues to grow. With Python libraries at the forefront, the possibilities for innovation are boundless.

So, as you embark on your data science journey in 2024, remember to harness the power of these 21 must-know Python libraries. They are the building blocks of groundbreaking discoveries and transformative insights that will shape the future of data science.

Data Science
Process Mining vs. RPA: Benefits, Costs, and Comparison
5 min read

Process management is an enormous field that is divided into various sections. It is all about dealing with the crucial aspects of creating, managing, and implementing multiple architectures by minimizing all the obstacles in the process. Among the essential constituents of process management; comes process mining, which can be seen as a blend of various technologies that help complete a project successfully, saving time and energy.

The primary purpose of process mining is to inspect the way processes work, how they originate, the hurdles that appear, and the techniques to minimize the barriers and upsets for a process' improvisation. Keep reading this blog as we will shed light on process mining, how it works, its benefits, and will compare it with RPA:

What is Process Mining?

Process mining can be defined as a process to examine and to keep an eye on the processes’ progress. Earlier process mining was done by conducting various workshops and consulting individuals to draw a picture of the processes.Since everything has modernized with time, so have the process mining techniques as they have evolved from the traditional practices to more advanced and automated ways. These days, process mining is conducted by analyzing the already available data and displaying a process based on the information.Process mining can be implemented on any process if the required data is available or stored in a system. It has made the visualization of your processes more effortless than ever before. You can use process mining to conduct an in-depth analysis, compare different strategies, monitor tasks, set benchmarks, and work on the data for improving processes.

Process Mining Benefits

Process Mining brings a series of benefits with its implementation since it is a solid upgrade from the weary traditional methods for analyzing data and project management. Let's take a look at the salient advantages of process mining in this section:

1)   Process Improvements & Error Detection

All the activities that are conducted for the initiation, processing and finalization of processes are shown by the process flow. A process flow includes all the anomalies, divergences, and missed steps to help you conclude better results. A user can track the processes and check if anything goes against your target model, check for improvements, and make the needed amendments right on time. Not only that, but a process flow also informs you about the better methods, and you may implement them for improved results.

2)   Timely Improvements

Process mining makes it quick and a lot simpler to get the results, so it also has the nature to accept the real-time changes in the market.It also makes the process of setting goals easier, which helps in developing an all-encompassing, assertive, and long-term optimization strategy that's also flexible and welcomes new changes without any problems.

3)   Clarity

Since many processes are running in parallel, it is impossible to monitor each project following a traditional approach. Process mining provides more clarity in process management, as it shows the progress of all processes, whether running alone or in parallel to other processes.Earlier, the visibility was quite tricky since there was a lot of paperwork involved, and with bigger projects, it was nearly impossible to track every process. Gone are the days when you had to guess if a process was failing or successfully running; with process mining, you get a clear picture of the progress of all processes.

4)   Quick Results

Since process mining follows the latest approaches for optimization, it dramatically increases the pace of results. Rather than spending hours on paperwork and analysis, mining does your job in a matter of seconds.

5)   Easy Monitoring

Process mining displays all your processes in great detail so that you can bring about changes at any phase to improve your processes. It allows you to either enhance the whole process or just work on the snippets of a process. All this helps you in developing a better strategy. On top of that, process mining also allows you to check how your optimizations are affecting your processes and change the strategy at any point for better results.

Process Mining and Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

Process mining has been used effectively to analyze the current state of business process performance, identify areas of improvement, and assess the results of process improvements. With process mining, you get a clear, data-driven picture of how well a process performs. The ability to see issues and solutions clearly will intrigue people working with process management. It will strengthen a company's commitment to making decisions based on data. Some businesses have already recognized process mining as a significant step in implementing RPA with better results. Many upcoming solutions will use a fusion of process mining, robotic process automation, and machine learning for best results.

How Do Process Mining and RPA Compare Against Each Other?

RPA handles all the tasks that are performed on a repeated basis, as it automates all those repetitive tasks to be done by robots in a faster and more efficient way. The RPA bots are handled via an application, and they imitate all the human actions that include regular tasks like adding, editing, removing, sorting the data, and much more. Unlike RPA, which is a solution or a tool, process mining is more like a methodology, intending to turn data into useful information and take appropriate actions. In order to digitize and automate business processes, businesses use process mining to analyze event log data for trends, correlations, and precise details about how a process develops. The new insights obtained from process mining can be used to eliminate corrupt data, efficiently allocate resources, and respond to any changes rapidly. RPA automates business processes while process mining solutions help in the CRMs and ERP systems. Despite the fact that RPA and process mining are polar opposites, they work brilliantly together.

Benefits of Using Process Mining and RPA Together

Process mining and RPA are both powerful technologies but are lethal when they come together. They help your business in the following ways:

  • Process mining and RPA complement each other as the former ads system event logs to gain insight into business processes, and the latter automates these processes.
  • When used together, process mining improves the efficacy of bot operations and their deployment, which results in better results.
  • Process mining increases the success rate of RPA projects.

Process Mining + RPA = Hyper-automation

Hyper-automation refers to the practice of automating everything that can be automated in a business. Think of it as a combination of RPA and process mining. Using AI, ML, and other technologies, organizations adopting hyper-automation aspire to streamline operations across their business so that they can function without human involvement. Businesses implementing hyper-automation will find that process mining does much more than just identify areas for automation. The system also establishes links between different IT systems and reveals previously hidden workloads. People mostly get confused figuring out the difference between automation and hyper-automation, so let’s clear how they differ once and for all. Automation refers to the accomplishment of a routine task without the involvement of a human being. It's more common on a micro level, with solutions tailored to specific problems. Hyper-automation pertains to using various automation tools for large-scale automation projects. The tools used in process mining also produce data ready for machine consumption, allowing for the automated process's robotic automation. Hyper-automation can benefit an organization in myriad ways, including:

  •      Helping your workforce with teaching the right skillset.
  •      Improving your business via intelligence using Artificial Language and Machine Learning.
  •      Providing information on automating your ROI so that your business can continue to grow.
  •      Optimizing any business process using the latest technologies.

Process Mining and RPA Costs

Sure, process mining and RPA are not cheap. You might get scared a bit when looking at the costs of RPA and process mining. But here's the thing. You need to calculate the value they are providing against their price. Calculate how much labor costs you will be saving with their implementation. If we take into account the amounts that these tools help us save, then their amounts will look like nothing. Keep in mind that these tools aren't built for struggling small businesses or individuals; but rather for enterprises. Using RPA bots as a quick fix instead of tighter data integrations and improved ETL processes is quite common these days. RPA bots often hide technical debt by sitting on top of fragmented software landscapes. Businesses can benefit from more intelligent automation. However, many organizations are better off unraveling their technical debt to enable simple data integrations and automation within their existing software rather than embarking on RPA expeditions.

Final Thoughts

In this technological era of development, anyone abstaining from the latest technological advancements will find themselves getting stuck in the web of problems.All successful businesses are embracing process mining and robotic process automation to help them grow faster than ever. The combination of both RPA and process mining is lethal, so if you can afford it, then go for it.

Data Science
Snowflake vs BigQuery: Best Cloud Data Warehouse in 2023
5 min read

Did you know that most of the data warehouse projects fail due to wrong planning and platform selection? That said, many businesses skip the step of selecting the right cloud data warehouse and proceed directly with the other tasks. Speaking of cloud data warehouse platform providers, both Snowflake and Google BigQuery are among the most sought-after options and offer top-notch features to facilitate organizations.

Our blog compares both warehouse solution providers in detail as we dig into the details of these data warehouse giants to help you make the right selection.

Understanding Snowflake and BigQuery

The thought of setting up a data warehouse earlier implied emptying your pockets on overly expensive hardware solutions to run in your data centers. However, the advent of cloud data warehouse solutions has halted these scary means and has provided inexpensive and finer solutions like Snowflake and BigQuery. Before we jump into the comparison, let us first give a brief overview of Snowflake and BigQuery for people new to these names.

If you are already acquainted with these data warehousing solution providers, you may skip this part and directly move towards the comparison part.

What is Snowflake?

Snowflake is a fully managed cloud data warehouse that is offered as a SaaS and DaaS to users worldwide.What separates Snowflake from its competitors is its architecture, which lets the users scale and pay for the computations and storage separately.You can deploy Snowflake to any of the following cloud providers:

  •      Microsoft Azure
  •      Amazon Web Services (AWS)
  •      Google Cloud Storage (GCS)

Businesses and organizations that don't want to get into the nitty-gritty of handling their in-house servers and hiring multiple people for the system's installation, configuration, and management can get a solution like Snowflake.With Snowflake, you don't have to deal with any back-end work, as you can deploy Snowflake instances on any of their preferred cloud providers.

What is BigQuery?

Google BigQuery, like Snowflake, is also a fully managed cloud data warehouse solution that is popular for its speed and responsiveness. As the name suggests, BigQuery is presented by Google and uses its Dremel technology, and is presented as a read-only data solution. BigQuery's tree-like architecture is the secret behind its ultra-fast scanning and querying. BigQuery is highly scalable due to the fast deployment cycle, and to put the cherry on top, it is serverless and offers on-demand pricing. Its architecture works on analyzing the used resources. It assures the usage of all available allocated resources so that the organizations can deploy them without needing to scale out. BigQuery is also a big-data solution thanks to its ability to collect high volumes of data and analyze and organize it fastly. Businesses and organizations seeking robust analytical and intelligent solutions can opt for BigQuery, as its algorithm, architecture, and flexible pricing makes it quite handy.

Snowflake vs. BigQuery: Comparison

Now that we have learned about Snowflake and BigQuery, we can jump into their comparison. We will compare both data warehouse solutions in three different departments, i.e., features, performance, and pricing, and lastly will conclude a winner that excels better in these departments.

Snowflake vs. BigQuery: Features

We all fancy solutions that are not just reliable and affordable but are also packed with the best and latest features. We will compare BigQuery and Snowflake in terms of their features' offering in this section and declare a winner in the features department at the end of this section.

Machine Learning

Machine learning sheds light on the algorithms and the data usage to copy the methods by which a process is learned and improvised with time, thanks to its complex technology. While the technological world is welcoming artificial intelligence with open arms, it is impossible to forget the importance of machine learning in growing data science solutions. BigQuery pays its homage to machine learning as it lets the users train and deploy the machine learning models using the existing models and improvising them. You can make most of this feature as you no longer are required to export your data or use a tool to carry data exportation tasks. Contrarily Snowflake solely depends on the external tools for machine learning. Even though using these external tools, you can carry out the tasks in a proficient manner; this solution is certainly not as coherent and handy as the one that BigQuery provides. Furthermore, if you combine BigQuery with Looker, you can get the best machine learning results.

Winner: BigQuery


Security is one factor that, if compromised, can annihilate any business or organization regardless of its size. Any business or firm dealing with confidential data should only opt for the cloud data warehouse solution that provides the most robust security. Thankfully, both our competitors BigQuery, and Snowflake are strong contenders in the security domain. Snowflake and BigQuery both use Advanced Encryption Standard on the data and support customer-managed keys. That said, both are dependent on the roles to offer access to their resources. Snowflake provides the SOC 1 Type II, SOC 2 Type II, PCI DSS, and HIPAA compliance, and offers strong security features to safeguard your precious data from intruders. Other security features include access control, multi-factor authentication, etc.

Don't want specific IP addresses to access your data? Snowflake lets you choose a list of IP addresses that you can whitelist, and any user with a different IP address from the list won't be able to enter the system. You can also blacklist IP addresses and use its automatic data encryption feature to guard your data further. On the other hand, BigQuery also focuses on security and follows modern methods to ensure the best security protocols. As BigQuery is a cloud solution offered by Google, it encrypts all your data automatically regardless of it being at rest or in transit. What more would one want?Like Snowflake, BigQuery also meets the PCI DSS and HIPAA compliance standards. Moreover, BigQuery allows the admins to manage the user's access to the cloud resources.

Winner: Snowflake

Ease of Use

Usability is another factor that everyone must take into consideration while selecting a data warehouse solution. Luckily, Snowflake and BigQuery are pretty user-friendly and built to provide a handy experience. The best thing about BigQuery in terms of user-friendliness is its serverless architecture which does not require the user to get into the technical complexities, as there is no setup required. The user just has to move their data into Google cloud storage, and that's pretty much all that is needed from the user's end. Even though Snowflake isn't serverless, it does not require you to set up the storage and compute, as it separates them both and uses the Snowflake Data Cloud to handle them. That said, you will need to have a cloud provider to back you up, unlike BigQuery that Google Cloud manages. The comparison of BigQuery and Snowflake is quite challenging in this domain, as both go head-to-head on user-friendliness, with BigQuery having a slight edge over Snowflake.

Winner: BigQuery


Most organizations are reluctant to pay high prices while spending on cloud warehouse solution providers and to save a few bucks, opt for inexpensive solutions. Even though they save themselves in the beginning by paying low costs, that strikes back as the cheap solutions often fail or require hefty amounts for their maintenance. The cheap solutions' maintenance is hard on the pockets, but they are also unreliable and insecure. Always go for a well-reputed warehouse solution provider and that does not require heavy maintenance over time. Unlike other solutions, Snowflake and BigQuery do not require massive administration costs and are pretty easily maintained. BigQuery facilitates its users by transferring the unused data to long-term storage automatically, saving high costs. If any element within BigQuery has not been used for over three months, it will automatically move it to long-term storage. Since both Snowflake and BigQuery are automated systems, they don't require much supervision. Both don't need human intervention in query optimization and instance adjustment. They also allow the admins to manage the user roles and permissions to ensure secure access. As data scales up with the passing time and the queries get more complex, both Snowflex and BigQuery automatically scale them to meet the requirements.

Winner: Tie


Since Snowflake separates the compute and storage resources, users can independently scale them as per their requirements. It also considers automated performance tuning and workload monitoring to enhance the query times when the platform is running. On the other hand, BigQuery tackles scalability differently. As it is serverless, it automatically facilitates extra compute resources or as per the on-time requirements to deal with big data. This ability makes it easier for BigQuery to process millions of gigabytes of data in a couple of minutes. Winner: BigQueryCombining our results in the domain of the features, we see BigQuery as the clear winner. Let’s see what we get in the performance and pricing domains.

Snowflake vs. BigQuery: Performance

The auto-scaling ability of both Snowflake and BigQuery allows them to sustain incredible amounts of load and deliver excellent performance. Both deliver almost similar performances for many tasks and require very little maintenance.If your business or organization deals with massive volumes of data and has high idle times, then BigQuery is a better option.On the flip slide, if your usage is relatively steady dealing with the data and queries, then Snowflake would be a more economical option, as it will let you resolve more queries into your compute times.Last year, Fivetran worked on a benchmark report that compared both our contenders, Snowflake and BigQuery. They ran 99 TPC-DS queries of different complexities and ran each query only once to abstain from caching the previous results.Fivetran generated a 1TB TPC data set having 24 tables in a snowflake schema, and they also decided to avoid fine-tuning the data warehouses and delivered the following results.

  •      Snowflake gave an average query time of 8.21 seconds.
  •      BigQuery gave an average query time of 11.18 seconds.

The results concluded that Snowflake is faster than BigQuery in terms of performance.Winner: Snowflake

Snowflake vs. BigQuery: Pricing

The last and probably the most important factor of our Snowflake and BigQuery comparison is their pricing plans and affordability. As mentioned in the upper sections, they both provide separate storage and compute, but we didn't discuss the computing costs.Interestingly, both Snowflake and BigQuery have different ways to calculate computing costs. While Snowflake calculates the prices based on time usage, BigQuery focuses on the data amount spent in scanning the queries.Let's discover more about their pricing plans:

Snowflake Pricing

Snowflake offers you a monthly amount of $23 per terabyte if you opt for upfront payment; else, you can also choose their $40 per terabyte (monthly average) if you choose their on-demand plan.Snowflake has separate pricing plans for the compute. It has divided its service into seven different tiers for data warehouses. You can avail of it for as low as an amount of $0.00056 per second.Visit Snowflake's official website to check out its pricing plans in detail.

BigQuery Pricing

With BigQuery, you have the following two payment options with storage:

  •      A flat rate of $20 per terabyte (monthly) for uncompressed and active storage.
  •      Pay $10 per terabyte (monthly) for long-term storage.

Note: Google offers the first 10 GBs of monthly storage for free. If we look at BigQuery's compute pricing plans, it charges you the on-demand queries for $5 per terabyte. It also gives you the option to buy 500 slots at $10,000 (monthly flat rate) or $8500 (annual flat rate). Note: Google offers the first 1TB of monthly storage for free. Visit BigQuery’s official website to check out its pricing plans in detail. Users seeking on-demand and pre-purchasing pricing plans as per their data needs and spending on a per-second basis should opt for Snowflake. While users looking for a charge per usage basis should go for BigQuery. BigQuery's web console also provides an estimated number of scanned data before the run to help you get an idea of the total cost. Winner: BigQuery

Final Decision: Snowflake vs BigQuery?

We compared both Snowflake vs BigQuery on various factors. While we have concluded a winner from our findings and personal opinions, we leave the final decision to you to pick up the better option.As per our comparison, BigQuery won in the features and pricing department, while Snowflake won in the performance department. While both are neck-to-neck competitors in all domains, our results conclude BigQuery as the better data warehouse solution.

Data Science
Data Science Project Life Cycle: Stages & Significance
5 min read

If you are a data science enthusiast, then your curiosity about the life cycle of data science projects is quite understandable. Knowing such important processes is essential in developing a better understanding of the overall subject. Data Science has come a long way since it was first introduced and is constantly evolving with time. Data Science works on data as the main subject, and all the studies and researches are conducted to derive more from the available data.

To feed all the inquisitive data scientists with the information they need, we have covered the life cycle of data science projects in great detail in this blog. Keep reading to find out about the steps involved in the life cycle.

What is a Data Science Life Cycle?

You may think of a project's data science life cycle as recurring stages that are required to be completed, and its deliverance to the client is dependent upon the successful completion of each step. Even though the life cycle contains similar steps, each company or organization follows a different approach. Data science projects require collaboration and are unsuccessful without a proper team effort. Different deployment and development teams come together on one platform to work on the given data and study it to derive various solutions and their analysis.

The data science life cycle encompasses all stages of data, from the moment it is obtained for research to when it is distributed and reused. The data lifecycle begins when a researcher or analyst comes forward with an idea or a concept. Once the concept for the study is accepted, then begins the process of collecting the relevant data. Data is stored after it is collected by the research team and is made available to other researchers to be used in the future. Once data has reached the distribution point, it is stored where other researchers can access it.

Why Do We Need Data Science?

Not too long ago, we didn't have enormous quantities of data, and it was readily available in a well-structured form to be easily stored in documents and sheets. However, as the data size increased with time, keeping big data and maintaining it became quite an obstacle and required extra effort. Companies dealing with gigantic data sizes can not rely on Excel sheets or a few folders for their storage; they want an improvised solution.

The need for maintaining and analyzing the vast data amounts gave birth to the idea of Data Science, which solves this problem using its complex algorithm, and robust technology. Data science is necessary to process, analyze, and interpret data safely. It helps the organizations better plan, set realistic goals, get a proper understanding of their current data, and focus on growth. The prominence of data science in the past few years has caused a spike in demand for data scientists throughout the world.

Five Stages of the Data Science Life Cycle

Data Science has come a long way since it emerged almost three decades back. Problems like these require a proper set of steps to tackle the issues correctly. Over the years, data scientists have developed a life cycle for data science projects and adhere to the process while working on data science problems. We all love shortcuts without realizing the damage they can provide. Some organizations prefer to jump towards the methods to solve the problem directly, without going through the proper steps. Sometimes these shortcuts solve your problem, but they almost always prove detrimental in the long run. Following the data science, life cycle steps ensure that the problem is being tackled to its core and provide a much better and more detailed analysis. The data science life cycle is divided into five steps, and we have listed the steps below along with their brief overview.

1. Business Understanding

Before you start working on your client's model, learn about the obstacles they're facing to apprehend their needs. Most people skip the pivotal step of understanding the actual problem and directly jump to the next phase and often end up in a failure or not fulfilling their client's demands. Understanding your client's issues is essential to building an efficient business model. Conduct thorough research to learn more about your client's business and ask them their expectations. Don't be reluctant to spend your time on the understanding phase, take help from the relevant people, conduct multiple meetings, and do whatever is required until you have understood the existing problems and issues. Business analysts are normally given the duty to collect customer information and send it to the data scientists team for analysis. Identifying and analyzing the objectives with the utmost accuracy is crucial, as even a tiny mistake can result in a project's failure.

2. Data Collection

Data science is non-existent without data, so collecting data is one of the most crucial life cycle stages for data science projects. When you have clearly understood your client's requirements and have analyzed the existing system and its problems, it's time to map down how to collect the required data. Consult your client, conduct team meetings, and do proper research to develop your data requirements and the methods to obtain them. Seasoned data scientists have their own ways to source, collect, and extract data to meet clients' expectations. Usually, the data analyst team is assigned to obtain the data, and they either source data via web scraping or with third-party APIs.

3. Data Preparation

Data is primarily obtained in a raw form, and the proper alignment of the scattered form is required to perceive it as information. It has to go through a cleaning process and be arranged in a proper format to be understood and used in an analytical step. The process of refining data is called data cleaning and is the core of data preparation. Once the data is presented in a structured form and is free from useless information, it helps you devise a strategy much better. Multiple sources are used for extraction during the data collection process, but they have to be compiled together in an understandable form for proper analysis. When data is typically acquired from various places, it sometimes is incomplete or has many gaps to make any sense for analysis. Data scientists have designed multiple methods to extract the missing piece and help structure the data. They also take the help of the exploratory data analysis (EDA), which identifies the important process of conducting initial research on data to find patterns, detect anomalies, and test hypotheses using statistical results and graphical representations.

4. Data Modelling

Data modeling is perhaps the core of the data science life cycle. In this step, the data scientist has to choose the appropriate model depending upon the problem. Using structured data as input, a model then outputs the desired result. Once the model family has been decided, the data scientist has to choose the right algorithm depending upon the model family that would give the best results and implements them effectively. Data scientists use the modeling stage to find data patterns and derive insights. The modeling stage marks the start of the entire data science system's analysis and allows you to measure the accuracy and relevance of your data.

5. Model Deployment

The final step of the life cycle of a data science project is the deployment phase. The step focuses on developing a delivery procedure to deliver the model to the users or a machine. The complexity of the deployment step depends upon the nature of the project. At times, it would require you to display your model output, and sometimes it would need you to scale your model to the cloud to thousands of users. Normally this step is taken care of by the application developers, SQA team, data engineers, machine engineers, and cloud engineers.


Q. What is the life cycle of a data science project?

Ans: The life cycle of a data science project comprises the five stages that lead to the project's completion. The five stages are listed as follows:

  1. Business Understanding
  2. Data Collection
  3. Data Preparation
  4. Data Modelling
  5. Model Deployment

Q. What is the first step in the data science life cycle?

Ans: The first step in the data science life cycle is business understanding. Data scientists should start with understanding their client's requirements first before jumping on to the next steps.

Q. What are the final stages of data science methodology?

Ans: The final stages of data science methodology include structuring the data, choosing the appropriate model, and then deploying the model.

Final Thoughts

Data science is the field that revolves over statistical methods, innovative technologies, and scientific thinking. We have tried to cover the data science life cycle in this blog and have tried to explain every step concisely and clearly. Still, if you are unclear about anything, don't hesitate to comment, and we will answer your queries ASAP!

Data Science
Snowflake vs Redshift - Complete Comparison Guide
5 min read

Data is the new commodity in today’s tech-driven world. With the increasing dependencies of the world on data, it proves to be the fundamental asset for small and mid-sized businesses to the big enterprises. Dependence upon data increased as enterprises started tracking records of their data for analytics and decision-making objectives.

The international big data market is predicted to grow to 103 billion U.S. dollars by 2027 with a share of 45 percent, and the software segment will occupy a notable big data market volume by 2027.

However, to keep a managed record of these overwhelming volumes of data, a proper data warehousing solution must be adapted. A data warehouse helps users in the accessibility, integrations, and more critically on the security aspect. This blog post focuses on the discussion of state-of-the-art data warehousing solutions and their detailed comparison, i.e.,

Snowflake vs. Redshift. To understand the differences between Snowflake and Redshift, we will go through some key aspects of both platforms.

What is Redshift?

Redshift can be considered a highly managed, cloud-based data warehouse service seamlessly integrated with various business intelligence (BI) tools. The only thing left is Extract, Transform, Load - ETL process to load data into the warehouse and start making informed business decisions.Amazon makes it easier for you to initiate with a few hundred gigabytes of data and scale up or down the capacity as per your requirements. It enables businesses to enjoy the perks of their data to get fruitful business insights about themselves or their customers.

redshift amazon logo

If you want to launch your cloud warehouse, you have to launch a set of nodes known as a Redshift cluster. Once you have triggered the cluster, data sets can be loaded to run different data analysis operations.  Irrespective of the size of your data set, you can leverage upon fast query performance by using the same SQL-based tools and BI utilities.

What is Snowflake?

Like Redshift, Snowflake is another powerful and renowned relational database management system -RDBMS. It’s introduced as an analytic data warehouse to support structured and semi-structured data that follows a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) infrastructure.

snowflake logo

This means it’s not set up on an existing database or a big data platform (like Hadoop). Instead, Snowflake serves as an SQL database engine with a unique infrastructure specifically developed to offer cloud services.This data and analytics solution is also quick, interactive, and offers more scalability than conventional data warehouses.

Redshift vs Snowflake - Comparison

If you have used both Redshift ETL and Snowflake ETL, you’ll probably be aware of several similarities between the two platforms. However, there are additional unique capabilities and other functionalities that each platform offers differently.Suppose you’re gearing up to run your data analytics operations entirely on the cloud. In that case, the similarities between these two state-of-the-art cloud data warehousing platforms are far more than their differences.

Snowflake offers cloud-based storage and analytics in the form of the Snowflake Scalable Data Warehouse. In this case, users can analyze and store data on cloud media.Next, data will be stored in Amazon S3. If you’re using Snowflake ETL, you can benefit from the public cloud environment without any need to integrate utilities like Hadoop.These cloud warehouse infrastructures are powerful and provide some unique features for handling overwhelming amounts of data.To choose a suitable solution for your company, one must compare integrations, features, maintenance, security, and costs.

Snowflake vs Redshift: Integration and Performance

If your business is already based on AWS, then Redshift might seem like the smart choice. However, you can also opt for Snowflake on the AWS Marketplace with on-demand utilities. If you’re already using AWS services like Athena, Database Migration Service (DMS), DynamoDB, CloudWatch, Kinesis Data Firehose, etc., Redshift shows promising compatibility with all these extensions and utilities. However, if you’re planning to use Snowflake, you need to note that it doesn’t support the same integrations as Redshift. This, in turn, will make it complex to integrate the data warehouse with services like Athena and Glue. However, Snowflake is compatible with other platforms like Apache Spark, IBM Cognos, Qlik, Tableau, etc. As a result, you can conclude that both platforms are just about even equally useful and workable. While Redshift is the more defined solution, Snowflake has completed notable miles over the last couple of years.

Snowflake vs Redshift: Database Features

Snowflake makes it simpler to share data between different accounts. So if you want to share data, for instance, with your customers, you can share it without any need to copy any of the data.This is a very smart approach to working with third-party data. But at the moment, Redshift doesn’t provide such functionality. Redshift is not compatible with semi-structured data types like Array, Object, and Variant. But Snowflake is.When it comes to handling String data types, Redshift Varchar limits data types to 65535 characters. You also have to opt from the column length ahead.On the other hand, the String range in Snowflake is limited to 16MB, and the default size is the maximum String size. As a result, you don’t have to know the String size at the start of the exercise.

Snowflake vs Redshift: Maintenance

With Amazon’s Redshift, users are encouraged to look at the same cluster and compete over on-desk resources. You have to utilize WLM queues to handle it, and it can be much complex if you consider the complex set of rules that must be acknowledged and managed. Snowflake is free from this trouble. You can easily initiate different data warehouses (of various sizes) to look at the same data without any need to copy it, and multiple copies of the same data can be distributed to different users and tasks in the simplest way possible. If we talk about Vacuuming and Analyzing the tables on regular basic copying, Snowflake ensures a turnkey solution. With Redshift, it can become troublesome as it can be an overwhelming task to scale up or down. Redshift Resize operations can also become extremely expensive suddenly and lead to notable downtime. This is not the case with Snowflake due to the separate compute and storage domains, and you don’t have to copy data to scale up or down. You can just switch data compute capacity whenever required.  

Snowflake vs Redshift: Security

For any big data project, security is the core of all aspects. However, it can be difficult to maintain consistency as every new data source can likely make your cloud vulnerable to evolving threats. It can generate a gap between the data generated and the data that’s being secured. When it comes to security measures, it’s not a race between Snowflake and Redshift, as both platforms provide enhanced security. However, Redshift also provides tools and utilities to handle Access management, Amazon Virtual Private Cloud, Cluster encryption, Cluster security groups, Data in transition, Load data encryption, Log-in credentials, and Secured Socket List - SSL connections. Snowflake also provides similar tools and utilities to incorporate security and regulatory compliance. But you have to be conscious while the edition as features aren’t available across all its variants.

Snowflake vs Redshift: Costs

Both Snowflake ETL and Redshift ETL have very contrasting pricing structures. If you take a deeper look, you’ll get to know that Redshift is less expensive when it comes to on-demand pricing. Both solutions provide 30% to 70% discounts for businesses who choose prepaid plans.With a one-year or three-year Reserved Instance (RI) price model, you can access additional features that you can miss out on a standard on-demand pricing model.

Redshift charges customers based on a per-hour per-node basis, and you can calculate your monthly billing amount using the following formula:

Redshift Monthly Cost = [Price Per Hour] x [Cluster Size] x [Hours per Month]

Snowflake’s price is heavily dependent on your monthly usage. This is because each bill is generated at hour granularity for each virtual data warehouse. In addition to that, data storage costs are also separate from computational costs.For instance, storage costs on Snowflake can start at an average compressed amount at a fixed rate of $23 per terabyte. It will be summed up daily and billed each month. But compute costs will be around $0.00056 per second or credit on Snowflake’s On-Demand Standard Edition.However, it can quickly become troublesome because Snowflake offers seven tiers of computational warehouses, with the most basic cluster costing one credit or $2 per hour.

The resultant bill is likely to double as you go up a level.In simple words, if you want to play safe, then Redshift is a less expensive option for you as compared to Snowflake on-demand pricing. But to leverage from notable savings, you’ll have to register for their one or three-year RI.

Snowflake vs Redshift: Pros & Cons

Amazon Redshift Pros

  • Amazon Redshift is very interactive user-friendly.
  • It also requires less administration and control. For instance, all you have to do is create a cluster, choose a type of instance, and then manage to scale.
  • It can be easily integrated with a variety of AWS services
  • If your data is stored on Amazon S3, Spectrum can easily run difficult queries. You just have to enable scaling of the compute and storage independently.
  • It’s highly favorable for aggregating/denormalizing data in a reporting environment.
  • It provides very fast query execution for analytics and enables concurrent analysis.
  • It provides a variety of data output formats, including JSON.
  • Developers with an SQL background can enjoy the perks of PostgreSQL syntax and work with the data feasibly.
  • On-demand reserved instance price structure covers both compute power and data storage, per hour and per node.
  • In addition to improved database security capabilities, Amazon also has a wide array of integrated compliance models.
  • Offers safe, simple, and reliable backups options

Amazon Redshift Cons

  • Not suitable for transactional systems.
  • Sometimes you have to roll back to an old version of Redshift while you wait for AWS to launch a new service pack.
  • Amazon Redshift Spectrum will cost extra, based on the bytes scanned.
  • Redshift lacks modern features and data types.
  • There can be complexities with hanging queries in external tables.
  • To ensure the integrity of transformed tables, you’ll also have to rely on passive mediums.

Snowflake Pros

  • Snowflake is suitable for enterprise-level businesses that operate mainly on the cloud.
  • This data warehouse platform is extremely user-friendly and compatible with most other services.
  • Its SQL interface is highly intuitive.
  • Integration is simple because Snowflake itself is a cloud-based data warehouse.
  • Easy to adapt and launch.
  • Supports a wide array of third-party services and utilities.
  • SaaS can be integrated with cloud services, data storage, and query processing.
  • Data storage and compute pricing will be based on different tier and cloud providers and charged separately.
  • Enable secure views and secure user-defined functions.
  • Account-to-account data transfer can be done via database tables.
  • Integrates easily with Amazon AWS.

Snowflake Cons

  • Snowflake is not recommended if you’re running a business using on-premise infrastructure that doesn’t easily support cloud services.
  • A minute’s worth of Snowflake credits will also be consumed whenever you enter a virtual warehouse but charged by the second after that.
  • There’s much room for improvement as Snowflake’s SQL editor needs to be upgraded to handle automated functions.


The choice between Redshift and Snowflake depends upon your usage and specific business requirements. For instance, if your organization manages overwhelming workloads ranging from the millions to billions, the obvious option here is Redshift. While their model is cost-effective, companies also can reduce their expenses by opting for query speeds at a lower price value for daily active clusters. As Redshift is a renowned Amazon product, there’s also comprehensive documentation and support that can help your employees deal with any potential problem. However, the bottom line is that your data warehouse decision has to be made based on your daily usage and the amount of data you will deal with.

Data Science
How to Build ETL Pipeline using Snowflake
5 min read

ETL stands for Extract, Transform, and Load. With the emergence of modern cloud technologies, many businesses are shifting their data from conventional on-premise systems to cloud environments by using ETL utilities. They used to leverage conventional RDBMS, which lacked performance and scalability. To achieve excellence in performance, scalability, reliability, and recovery, organizations are shifting to cloud technologies such as Amazon Web Services, Google cloud platform, Azure, private clouds, etc.

In a general ETL scenario, ETL is a streamlined process that fetches data from conventional sources by using connectors for analysis, transforms this data by applying different methodologies like filter, aggregation, ranking, business transformation, etc. that serves business needs, and then loads onto the destination systems which is generally a data warehouse.  The illustration below can give you a clear picture of how ETL works.

ETL on Snowflake

Approach towards ETL in Snowflake

The journey begins with the Snowipe, an automated utility developed using Amazon SQS and other Amazon Web Services (AWS) solutions that asynchronously listen for upcoming data as it reaches Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) and consistently loads it into Snowflake However, Snowpipe alone does not contribute to the phase “E” (Extraction) of ELT, as only the “COPY INTO” command is allowed in a Snowpipe.

In other words, we can achieve the following objectives using Snowpipe:

  • Loading data files in different formats such as CSV, JSON, XML, Parquet, and ORC
  • Adopting and improving the source database for better synchronization, such as stripping outer array for JSON and stripping outer element for XML
  • Altering column names
  • Altering column orders
  • Omitting columns
  • Parsing of data/time string into data/time object

Snowpipe is not capable enough to eliminate all problems that one can face while building a data pipeline. Therefore, for the following three reasons, Streams and Tasks are required for the rest of the process:

  1. Snowflake does not support data transformations such as numbers calculation and string concatenation.
  2. The data source is not in a typical 3N normalized form, so it must be loaded into multiple tables based on certain relations.
  3. The ELT jobs may not be restricted to create table joins but also involve more complex requirements such as SCD (Slowly Changing Dimension).

Roadmap to Build ETL Pipeline

There are multiple ways to build the ETL pipeline. You can either create shell scripts and orchestrate using crontab, or utilize the ETL tools available to develop a customized ETL pipeline. ETL pipelines are mainly classified into two types are Batch processing and Stream processing. Let’s discuss how you can create a pipeline for batch and stream data.

Build ETL Pipeline with Batch Processing

The data is processed in batches from the source database to the destination data warehouses in a conventional ETL infrastructure. There are different tools that you can use to create ETL pipelines for your batch processing. Below are the detailed steps that you need to go through while building an ETL pipeline for batch processing :

  • Step 1. Create reference data: Reference data possess the static references or permitted values that your data may involve. You need the reference data while transforming the data from source to destination. However, it is an optional step and can be excluded if you want to omit transformation (as that of an ELT process).
  • Step 2. Connectors to Extract data from sources: To build the connection and extract the data from the source, you need the connectors or the defined toolset that establish the connection. The data can be from a multitude of sources and formats like API, RDBMS, XML, JSON, CSV, and any other file formats. You need to fetch all diverse data entities and convert them into a single format for further processing.
  • Step 3. Validate data: After fetching or extracting the data, it is crucial to validate the data to ensure it is in the expected range and omit it. For instance, you need to extract the data for the past seven days, and you will filter out the data that will contain records older than seven days.
  • Step 4. Transform data: Upon validation, further data makeup includes de-duplication of the data, cleansing, standardization, business rule application, data integrity check, aggregations, and much more.
  • Step 5. Stage data: This is the phase where you store the transformed data. It is not recommended to load transformed data directly into the destination warehouse. Instead, the phase allows you to roll back your operations easily if something goes against the criteria. The staging phase also provides Dashboard and Audit Reports for analysis, diagnosis, or regulatory compliance.
  • Step 6. Load to data warehouse: From the staging phase, the data is pushed to destination data warehouses. You can either opt to overwrite the existing information or add new data with the existing record whenever the ETL pipeline loads a new batch.
  • Step 7. Scheduling: This is the last and most crucial phase of streamlining your ETL pipeline. You can choose the schedule to refresh and load new data based on daily, weekly, monthly, or any custom time frame. The data loaded with the schedules can include a timestamp to identify the load date, making it easier to roll back any information and check the life of available information. Scheduling and task dependencies have to be done critically to refrain from facing any memory and performance issues.

Build ETL Pipeline with Real-time Stream Processing

Many modern sources such as social media, eCommerce platforms, etc., produce real-time data that requires constant transformations as it appears. You cannot perform ETL in the same way as you do in batch processing as it requires you to perform ETL on the streams of the data by cleaning and transforming the data while it is in the transition phase to the destination systems. Several real-time stream processing tools are available in the market, such as Apache Storm, AWS Kinesis, Apache Kafka, etc. The below illustration elaborates the ETL pipeline built on the renowned and frequently used Kafka.

To create a stream processing ETL pipeline with Kafka, you have to:

  • Step 1. Data Extraction:

The first step that you need to do is extract data from the source databases to Kafka using the Confluent JDBC connector or by writing custom codes that fetch each record from the source and then shift it into Kafka topic. Kafka automatically fetches the data whenever new records are found and pushes it to the topic as an update, making it a real-time data stream.

  • Step 2. Pull data from Kafka topics:

The ETL application extracts the data from the Kafka topics either in JSON or in AVRO format. It is then deserialized to perform transformations by creating Kstreams. Deserialization in computing is the conversion of a string into an object.

  • Step 3. Transform data:

Once you fetch the data from Kafka topics, you can perform the transformation on KStream objects with the help of Spark, Java, Python, or any other programming language. The Kafka streams handle one record and generate one or more outputs depending upon the transformation design.

  • Step 4. Load data to other systems: The ETL application loads the streams into destination warehouses or data lakes after the transformation.


We can create an ETL pipeline using Snowflake to continuously shift data from the source to the destination data lake or warehouse. Often, raw data is first loaded temporarily into a staging table used as an interim container and then transformed with SQL queries before it is loaded into the destination. In-stream processing, this interim container is replaced by Kafka for deserialization.

Data Science
Everything You Need To Know About Data Lake and Data Warehouse
5 min read

There are many buzzwords related to data management; the most recurring ones are data lake and data warehouse. This blog covers the unique features, key differences, and contemporary trends related to these terminologies. Let’s discuss what they offer and how they work.

Data Lake

A data lake is a highly scalable storage space mainly occupied by large volumes of raw data in its primitive form until it is called for a process. Data in lake data comes from various sources that comprise a combination of clustered or organized formats and are stored with a flat architecture in different file sizes. For organizations that need to collect and store a lot of data but do not find it necessary to process and analyze it instantaneously, a data lake serves as an effective repository that provides large storage spaces quickly without any need for data being transformed.

data lake

Data Warehouse

Traditional data warehouses collect and manage data for further usage in a more structured ecosystem. It performs data to information transition and provides meaningful business insights. Businesses that use data warehouses learn and analyze from their data to perform data-driven management and operational decisions.

how data warehouse work

Ref: N-ix

Also Read: ETL Pipeline and Data Pipeline – How to create an ETL Process

Differences Between Data Lake & Data Warehouse

Due to the more flexible and scalable nature, data lakes are usually considered complementary solutions to data warehouses. But both technologies have their unique features and limitations.Below are the key differences between a data lake and a data warehouse.


Raw data is data that waits to be processed for further usage. The main difference between data lakes and data warehouses is their ability to deal with raw or processed data. Data lakes primarily store raw and unprocessed data. On the other hand, data warehouses store processed and refined data.Because of this notable difference, data lakes require a much larger storage capacity than data warehouses. Secondly, raw & unprocessed data is much elastic and can be quickly called for an analysis of any kind, making it ideal for machine learning.The ability to store the raw data comes with the curse of data swamps due to the lack of appropriate quality check measures active onboard. To address this problem, data warehouses, by storing only processed and useful data save too much storage space by eliminating the portion of data that can be considered junk.


The purpose of independent and disconnected data pieces in a data lake is not determined. Raw data is being pushed into a data lake, sometimes with predetermined future use and sometimes to store for the sake of nothing. This unfiltered data inflow makes data lakes less organized than its opponent.Since data warehouses only store processed data, all of the data in a data warehouse has been stored for a determined purpose and use within the organization. This means that storage space is not wasted on unidentified or useless data junk.


Data lakes are often difficult to navigate by immature staff with less or no experience dealing with unprocessed data. Raw, unstructured data usually demands the role of a data scientist and specialized tools to transform and translate it for a useful business purpose.Processed data can be represented through bar diagrams, graphs, spreadsheets, tables, etc. This makes it understandable by most employees at a company. As we have discussed earlier, this processed data is handled by data warehouses.


Accessibility directly depends on how easy it is to use and access the whole data repository, not the data within. Data in Data lake architecture is stored unstructured and unconnected, which makes Data Lake easier to access. Secondly, any changes made to the data can be done instantaneously since data lakes have very few limitations and no data connections. But this environment can lead to issues like data redundancy.To overcome the issue of data redundancy, data warehouses are designed to be more structured, protected, and secure. But the strictness of structure and management controls makes data warehouses difficult and costly to manipulate as every intended change without a structured & directional mechanism is considered a violation or breach of management measures and demands expertise to manipulate.

Contemporary & Future Trends

Instead of serving as a single source of the data, the data lake provides an adaptable ecosystem that holds a variety of data, with the ability to evolve in accordance with the open access data libraries. With scalability and flexibility preferred over management and control, the data lake is made to ensure cloud storage’s core values and capabilities.As data consumers refine and analyze data, the patterns and insights they find can be pushed back into the data lake, so they are readily available to other data consumers, thus creating an ocean of data and data analytics that has never been experienced before.

This critical feedback loop makes the data lake better and easy to utilize by data consumers.Data Architecture once only portrays an ideal data warehouse, but now the cloud opens up new windows for short-lived data warehousing. A database or visualization tool is not mandatory with methodologies that can call or retrieve data from Data Lake directly.Both technologies are unique in offering their services as Data Lake is more suitable for implementing business intelligence, and data warehouse houses more managed and structured data. The critical question is not what to use but how to extract meaning and insights from data to drive a directed and fruitful business process. As data volume increases with the every day passing, so is the complexity of dealing with it, whether it stores in a lake or a warehouse.


The data warehouse stands as a logical representation of refined and filtered data that almost all employees in a business can use to make decisions at different levels. Without a data warehouse, decision-makers have to make a blind and slow decision that results in a business model, more vulnerable to error and mistakes.But as the amount of structured and unstructured data increases, businesses need to deploy a data lake to entertain a vast ocean of data. The contents and layout of the data lake can be determined by the nature and size of data that cannot be behold using the mainstream data warehouse.

Using both technologies, the organizations create a Business Intelligence ecosystem, a more logical model that is a data warehouse to process and manage the data with several other data visualization tools and technologies, including a data lake in parallel to increase storage scalability. In this scenario, the data lake and the conventional data warehouse work side by side to deliver fruitful results and work together as components of the larger, integrated, and more connected BI ecosystem, which in turn, add value to the data stock by delivering insights and enabling experts to make precise decisions & predictions, previously impossible.

Data Science
Data Science Hierarchy of Needs - Explained
5 min read

The Data Science Hierarchy of Needs can be well explained by Data Science Pyramid that focuses on the firm data foundation mandatory to attain good data science stability. The pyramid starts with the raw data itself, which may come from many sources, in different formats, and massive amounts. Data Engineers add the context and layout to turn this data into information. Data Management and Governance ensure coordination and quality before this data reaches the final phase. Reporting and Business Intelligence are equally important as they provide a foundation for insight gathering, where information is collected, categorized, and processed to provide analytical outcomes. Finally, Data Science showcases the summit of data into action, depending upon all the foundational phases while also providing a fresh set of robust statistical methodologies.

The data science pyramid is not necessarily a linear approach, meaning that an organization does not need to attain perfection in each phase before transitioning to the next. Instead, a certain level of expertise is required in each phase before moving ahead, and each consecutive transition to the advanced level informs improvements to previous ones. For instance, an organization with a confident grasp on its Data Management and Governance advance towards Reporting and BI, only to figure out different areas for improving data quality. It is essential to know that the data science pyramid depends on the initial value potential. If a company has not already developed a firm data foundation, it is not rational to jump levels in most cases. Instead, organizations would likely enrich more initial value by improving their fundamental and foundational basis before advancing towards data science maturity. The performance of a statistical model directly depends on the value and purity of information it is trained on. Other primary drivers like significant sources, infrastructure, governance, and dashboards come into frame.

Perspectives in Data Science

To utilize your data completely, you have to consider two different perspectives while looking at and handling any data. First of all, there are two perspectives people hold while looking at the data. Either they can see from the perspective of a developer, data scientist, or Machine Learning Engineer, or they may see it from the lens of a business owner. All of these perspectives and viewpoints are very equally critical in deriving benefits from data. Most engineers look at it from the bottom up. It means they focus on how the data will be collected, stored, accessed, and then analyzed to extract actionable insights and patterns. They primarily focus on the engineering aspect of data science to fetch insight and valuable patterns.

Also Read: 8 Applications of Data Clustering Algorithms

On the other hand, an enterprise owner or business person shows interest in the profits they are likely to gain from the data. They are more interested in the profits they can drive from the data. The best approach to implement a data science pyramid is to merge both perspectives. You need to know how the data is collected, the data roadmap, and the different types of data analytic methodologies to fetch valuable and profitable insight and then how to use these insights to influence your decision-making process and boost profits.

The Data Science Pyramid of Needs

Let’s discuss the hierarchy of needs needed to add value, context, and perspective to the raw data and transform it into valuable insights.

Data Science Hierarchy of Needs

1. Data Acquisition

Data Acquisition focuses on many raw data sources, ranging from various traditional data sources, including ERP systems, Legacy Data Stores, and Operational Systems, to more dynamic and advanced runtime sources such as social media platforms and natural language. Data science has provided immense opportunities and possibilities in data acquisition, as previously seemingly absurd data types can now be used for different purposes using advanced methodologies.

2. Data Engineering

Data Engineering possesses all the activities linked with processing, moving, and storing data. Data Engineering can range from conventional tool-based ETL to custom-built data pipelines, which develop the underlying infrastructure through which data flows and is controlled. It is crucial as it provides the tools and methodologies necessary for the ETL workflows that enable data to move efficiently for advanced processes further up the pyramid.

3. Data Management and Governance

It ensures that intense scrutiny and check mechanisms are being placed on the meta-attributes of data such as data types, cardinality, and value distribution. This phase controls the various activities linked with improving the quality and usability of data by cleaning it and adding useable features. Data Management is a vital middle component because of the algorithms that enable AI and Machine Learning to learn and analyze data.  Therefore, data must be organized, free from errors, up-to-date, and useable.

4. Reporting and Business Intelligence

It includes the tools and methodologies linked with making information readily available to organizations for the analytical processes. It focuses on showcasing information compellingly and understandably to use various decision-making processes; and possesses different data and OLAP data schemas. Reporting and BI add value because it effectively represents your data science outcomes and results to the rest of the organization and non-technical department in the most understandable way possible.  It serves as a medium that connects data science to the primary decision-makers who can then make rational and data-driven decisions to boost the business’s business’s overall performance and profit margin.

5. Data Science

Data Science can be instrumental at the intersection of advanced mathematics, statistics, computer science, and domain expertise. It is an interdisciplinary approach to creating diagnostic, predictive, or contextual insights from massive, complex, and exotic data sources using approved, attentive, and reproducible methodologies.


The overall concept of the pyramid lies in the question of why and how we use data. To turn data into information, then into insight, you need to build massive IT systems to turn raw and seemingly useless and scattered data into organized information to derive actionable insights. Every step you go up the pyramid, you stream or improve some portion of the data, information, or insight process. For instance, data infrastructure & engineering is intended to transform the raw information into something with more context & organization onwards.  The transition from Reporting & BI to Data Science represents the last step of this automation drive.

Also Read: A Basic Guide on Cross-Entropy in Machine Learning

Keep in mind, in the end, if the foundation is weak and based on noisy, incomplete, and unorganized data, the solution will not be optimized. The outcomes could be downright devastating. Instead of jumping steps or avoiding the mandatory internal challenges, ensure the foundation is as strong as possible. By doing so, even if you don’t attain the highest level of the data pyramid, your business will still enjoy the perks of the processed data and analytics for more satisfactory solutions.

Data Science
ETL vs Data Pipelines: Building Efficient Processes
5 min read

Throughout history, perspective in the data domain has experienced multiple transformations. Due to the recent advances made in machine learning, the data management processes of organizations have started to reform like never before. The exponential growth of available and accessible data demands the modern management and handling of immense data assets. The end-to-end routes of data architecture are known as pipelines. Every pipeline possesses one or more sources and target systems to access and manipulate the available data.

In these pipelines, data goes through various stages, including transformation, validation, normalization, etc. People often confuse the ETL Pipeline with Data Pipeline.This blog post is intended to answer two questions.

  • What is the difference between the ETL Pipeline with Data Pipeline?
  • How to make an ETL Pipeline?

ETL Pipeline

Data ETL Pipelines are architectures that involve certain processes, including the extraction of data from a source, its transformation, and then loading it into the target destination for different purposes like machine learning, statistical modeling, extracting insights, etc. The said target destination could be a data warehouse, data mart, or database.

etl pipeline

ETL stands for Extraction, Transformation, and Loading. As the title suggests, the ETL process involves:

  • Data integration
  • Data warehousing
  • Data Transformation

The extraction involves the fetching up of data from different heterogeneous sources. For instance, business systems, applications, sensors, and databanks. The next stage is data transformation that involves converting into a defined and improved format to use by many applications. Last but not the least, the accessible and improvised form of data finally loads into a target destination. The primary objective of building an ETL Pipeline is to employ the right data, make it available for reporting, and store it for instant and handy access. An ETL tool assists businesses and developers to spare time and effort to focus on core business processes. There exists a variety of strategies to build ETL pipelines depending on a businesses’ unique requirements.

ETL Pipeline - Use Case

There are a variety of scenarios where ETL pipelines can be used to deliver faster, superior-quality decisions. Data ETL pipelines are implemented to centralize all data sources and allow businesses to have a consolidated data version. Consider the Customer Resource Management (CRM) department that uses an ETL pipeline to extract customers’ data from multiple touchpoints during the purchase process. It can also allow the department to develop comprehensive dashboards that can serve as a single source containing customer information from different sources. Similarly, it often becomes essential for the companies to internally transit and transforms data between multiple data shelves. For instance, if data is stored in different intelligence systems, it becomes difficult for a business user to drive clear insights and make rational decisions.

Data Pipeline

A data pipeline is an architecture that involves moving data from the source to the target destination. These steps involve copying and loading data from an onsite location into the cloud or merging it with other data sources. The primary objective of a data pipeline is to make sure that all this transition process is applied consistently to all available data.

data pipeline

If handled properly, a data pipeline allows businesses to access consistent and well-organized data for further processing. By practicing data transfer and transformation, data engineers will fetch information from various sources rationally.

Data Pipeline - Use Case

Data pipelines are helpful for accurately extracting and driving useful data insights. The methodology works well for businesses or companies that store and depend on multiple, huge chunks of data sources, perform real-time data analysis, and have their data stored on the cloud. For instance, data pipeline tools and methodologies perform predictive analysis to filter the most probable future trends from the least probable ones. A production department can perform predictive analytics to determine if the raw material is likely to run out. It could also allow making forecasts about the possible delays in a supply line. In this way, these insights can help the production department handle its operations free from any resistance or errors.

Difference between ETL Pipelines and Data Pipelines

Although ETL and data pipelines are closely related concepts, they have multiple differences; however, people often use the two terms interchangeably. Data pipelines and ETL pipelines are both designated to shift data from one source to another; the main difference is the application for which the pipeline is designed, a detail of which is discussed in the following article.

  • The difference of terminology between ETL pipeline & data pipeline

ETL pipeline possesses a series of mechanisms that fetch data from a source, transform it, and load it into the target destination. Whereas a data pipeline is a kind of broader terminology with ETL pipeline as its subset. It lacks the transformation phase and only includes transferring data from a source to the target destination.

  • Purpose of ETL pipeline VS data pipeline

In a simpler means, a data pipeline is intended to transfer data from sources, such as business processes, applications, and sensors, etc., into a data warehouse to run intelligent and analytical processes. On the other hand, ETL pipeline, as the name suggests, is a specific kind of data pipeline in which data is extracted, transformed, and then loaded into a target destination. After extracting data from the source, the critical step is to adjust this data into a designated data model that’s designed following the specific business intelligence requirements. This adjustment includes accumulation, cleaning, and transformation of the data. In the end, the resulting data is then loaded into the target system.

  • Differences in how ETL and data pipeline run

An ETL pipeline operates to fetch data in batches, which moves a certain amount of data to the target system. These batches can be organized in such a way as to run at a specific time daily when incase of low system traffic. On the other hand, a data pipeline doesn’t stockpile from the source and can be deployed as a real-time process by ensuring every event must be handled as soon it happens instead of batches. For instance, to transfer data coming from an air traffic control (ATC) system. Moreover, the data pipeline doesn’t require adjusting data before loading it into a database or a data warehouse. This data can be loaded into any destination system, such as the Amazon Web Services bucket.

How to Build an ETL Process

When you build an ETL infrastructure, you must first gather and combine data from many sources. Then you are required to carefully outline the strategy and test to ensure error-free transfer of data. This is a lengthy and complex process.

Let’s discuss in detail how.

Building an ETL Pipeline for Batch Processing

As discussed earlier in an ETL pipeline, you handle data in batches from source databases to a target destination (a data lake or warehouse). It’s a complicated task to build an enterprise ETL architecture from scratch. Data engineers usually use ETL tools such as Stitch or Blendo, each serving as a simplifier and automating much of your tasks.To develop an ETL pipeline using batch processing, you are required to:

  • Create a dataset of the primary key (Unique Variable)

Create a dataset that possesses the set of permitted variables and values your data may contain. For instance, in air traffic control data, specify the flight numbers or flight designator allowed.

  • Extract data from multiple sources

The foundations of successful ETL are based on the correct extraction of data. Fetch data from various sources, such as Apps Data, DBMSm RDBMS, XML, CSV files, and transform it into a single format for mutual processing as per standards.

  • Validate data

Filter the data with values in the expected ranges from the rest. For instance, if you only want cars record from the last decade, reject any older than ten years. Analyze abandoned records on an ongoing basis, outline issues, adjust the source data, and enhance the extraction process to resolve the issues that can lead to future batches.

  • Transform data

Eliminate duplicate data, apply filters ensuring business rules, ensure data integrity (to refrain from losing any data), and create aggregates as necessary. To do so, you need to implement numerous functions to automate the transformation of data.

  • Stage data

You cannot typically load transformed data directly into the target destination. Instead, data is first injected into a staging database, making it easier to reverse any change if something goes wrong. This is where you can produce audit reports for regulatory purposes and perform diagnoses to repair any problem.

  • Publish to your target system

While loading data to the target database, some data warehouses overwrite existing information upon loading a new batch. These overwrites may occur daily, weekly, or monthly. In other cases, the ETL process can add new data without overwriting the old one, assigning a time flag to indicate it is updated or recent. This practice needs to be handled carefully to secure the data warehouse from overflowing due to disk space.

2. Building an ETL Pipeline for Stream Processing

Modern practices involve data-time processing, such as web analytics data from a large e-commerce website. As discussed earlier, you cannot extract and transform data in large batches, but instead, it requires performing ETL on data streams. As soon as client applications write data to the data source, you must clean and transform it while transitioning between source and destination. Different stream processing tools are available, including Apache Samza, Apache Storm, and Apache Kafka. The illustration below showcases an ETL pipeline based on Kafka (S3 Sink Connector to stream the data to Amazon S3).

ETL Pipeline for Stream Processing

(Source - Confluent)

To create a stream processing ETL pipeline using Apache Kafka, you are required to:

  • Extract data into Kafka Topics

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application programming interface (API) for Java's programming language. Here, the JDBC connector attracts each source table row and feeds it into a key/value pair into a Kafka topic as message feeds. Kafka’s organized message feeds into categories called topics. Each topic has a title that is unique across the entire Kafka cluster. Applications interested in the state of this table read from this topic. As client applications add rows to the source table, Kafka automatically updates them as new messages to the Kafka topic, allowing a real-time data stream.

  • Pull data from Kafka topics

The ETL application fetches messages from the Kafka topic in Avro records, creates an Avro schema file, and deserializes them. Deserialization does the opposite of serialization by converting bytes of arrays into the desired data type. Then it produces KStream objects from the messages.

  • Transform data in KStream objects

Using the Kafka Streams API, the stream processor receives a single record, processes it, and generates one or more output records for downstream process handlers. These process handlers can transform one message, filter them as per regulations, and perform different operations on many messages.

  • Load data to other systems

The ETL application still possesses the enriched data and now requires to stream it into destination systems, such as a data warehouse or data lake. Amazon S3 or Amazon Simple Storage Service is a service provided by Amazon Web Services that allows object storage through a web service interface. In the diagram above, the S3 Sink Connector is used to stream the data to Amazon S3. PS: One can also integrate with other systems, such as a Redshift data warehouse using Amazon Kinesis Data Firehouse, integrated with Amazon S3, Amazon, and Amazon Elasticsearch Service. Now you know how to perform ETL processes the conventional way (Batch Process) and streaming data.


As you’ve seen, although used interchangeably, ETL and data Pipelines are two different architectures. While the ETL process involves data extraction, transformation, and loading, the data pipeline doesn’t necessarily include data transformation. Shifting data from source to target system enables various operators to query more systematically and correctly than possible instead of dealing with complex, diverse, and raw source data. A well-structured data pipeline and ETL pipeline improve the efficiency of data management and enable data managers to easily make instant iterations to fulfill the evolving data requirements of the business.

Get free Consultation!

Book your free 40-minute
consultation with us.

Do you have a product idea that needs validation?
Let's have a call and discuss your product.